World Health & Population
The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Soc Sci Med See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Condom use within marriage could, therefore, be an important prevention strategy, but there is considerable debate about whether married couples would be willing to use condoms. This paper contributes to this debate by identifying key factors that affect the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use among men and women in rural Malawi, using three waves of longitudinal data fromand Using fixed-effects regression, we found that getting married coincides with a pronounced attitudinal shift regarding the acceptability of condom use within marriage that cannot be explained by differences in fertility status or selection into marriage. In addition, we found that, for women, perceived HIV status of the respondent and spouse generally had greater influence than actual HIV status on the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner, even after HIV status is known; while actual HIV status and HIV risk behaviors are generally more important among men. Although condom use within marriage remained low, these findings suggest that attitudes about and use of condoms are susceptible to change and that both marital status and perceptions of risk are important influences on condom use. According to a study in urban Zambia and Rwanda, between
Analysis In a study of ever-married bucolic women in Malawi, we found denial differences in condom use acceptability contained by marriage between Muslims and Christians. Catholics were also no different in condom acceptability compared to the majority of individual religious denominations. However, Presbyterians were less likely than Catholics to account condom acceptability when one partner was known or suspected to be contaminated. We had hypothesized that Muslim women would be less likely to acknowledge condom use or less likely en route for use condoms within marriage. Malawian Muslim women are more likely than Christian women to be in polygamous marriages. Being in a polygamous marriage could limit a woman's power to accord for condom use when she suspects or knows that her spouse is HIV infected al-Krenawi ; Slonim-Nevo after that al-Krenawi However, the fact so as to condom acceptability and reported use along with Muslims did not differ significantly as of Christians suggests that this mechanism can not be applicable or that Christians had their own barriers to condom acceptability in this setting. Our findings may suggest that different faiths before denominations in Malawi were promoting before failing to promote condom use contained by marriage equally.
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This variable - condom negotiation - was measured using a single question, akin to Urada and colleagues [ 34 ] in their study of condom negotiation among female sex workers. We are however aware of other studies in which this variable was calculated using a series of questions [ 35 ]. This was dictated as a result of the fact that the two categories - a and d - had fewer responses compared to b after that c, a situation which would allow compromised the efficiency of our algebraic tests if each category was treated individually. Other explanatory variables were built-in as potential confounders. These were socio-demographic variables namely, age, religion, marital category, education attainment, household wealth status, after that district of residence. We also built-in number of sexual partners a female had in the past 12 months, and knowledge of whether people be able to reduce their chances of contracting the HIV by using a condom all time they have sex.